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  #1  
Old 02-20-2014
e721420 e721420 is offline
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I have a few questions regarding combat:

1) What does +10% defender BONUS and -50% attacker PENALTY mean. Do the percentages apply to the number of FFD and therefore reduce the casualties inflicted?

2) Lets say I have a unit on Hex97 on the Haggerstown map and it begins the turn adjacent to a enemy unit on Hex108.

Case 1. both units are issued a defend order and are not instructed to move, does combat occur?
Case 2. Same conditions as (1) but both are issued a reinforce order. The unit on Hex97 is adjacent to a friendly on Hex85 and the other unit is adjacent to its friendly on hex120. Does combat occur between the Hex 97 and Hex108 units? Are the Hex85 and Hex120 units involved?

3) What are the Penalty/Bonus affects on units in or attacking entrenchments, these are not included in the great summary table in the manual.

Thanks,
e721420
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  #2  
Old 02-21-2014
e721420 e721420 is offline
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Thanks for your help. I find myself experimenting also where there is no detail in the manual.
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  #3  
Old 02-21-2014
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mesadmin3 mesadmin3 is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by e721420 View Post
Thanks for your help. I find myself experimenting also where there is no detail in the manual.
Hi e,

Evers is spot on. Off the top of my head, Entrenchments are 20% bonus. Ill have to check with the engine programmer to be certain (we haven't touched that code in a while)

Jeff
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  #4  
Old 02-22-2014
zobs1959 zobs1959 is offline
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...and do not forget the important role morale plays> units with poor morale will often not follow the orders issued...at least i believe that is what is happening. And when units are victorious their morale increases ( +5 ) while the defeated units morale decreases ( -5 ).
This swing can often lead to opportunities to press the attack.
the game is excellently designed to encompass a great deal of battlefield factors.
Many of us here are 'old' avalon hill gamers. Those were the games that took 2 hours to set up, then 2 hours to execute a turn with constant referral back to the manual and ceaseless bickering over sketchy moves and rule interpretations. The games usually ended when the house cat got on the board and made a mess of things......
....'third reich' 'tobruk' 'panzer blitz' .....
oh the fond memories.......
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Old 02-22-2014
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...and do not forget the important role morale plays> units with poor morale will often not follow the orders issued...at least i believe that is what is happening. And when units are victorious their morale increases ( +5 ) while the defeated units morale decreases ( -5 ).
This swing can often lead to opportunities to press the attack.
the game is excellently designed to encompass a great deal of battlefield factors.
Many of us here are 'old' avalon hill gamers. Those were the games that took 2 hours to set up, then 2 hours to execute a turn with constant referral back to the manual and ceaseless bickering over sketchy moves and rule interpretations. The games usually ended when the house cat got on the board and made a mess of things......
....'third reich' 'tobruk' 'panzer blitz' .....
oh the fond memories.......
Ah the infamous battle of Whiskers the Cat. Many a good man was lost on that fateful day...

Zobs is right, morale is critical to the performance of your troops

Jeff
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Old 02-22-2014
e721420 e721420 is offline
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Thanks Gentleman

Sorry for being thick...
The one HEX away rule applied in a Defense is from the reinforcing unit to the friendly defending unit and not necessarily one hex from the attacking unit??? Another words the reinforcing unit can be behind the defending unit. Is this also true in an Attack?'

Thanks again,
Mike
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  #7  
Old 02-26-2014
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Sorry for the delay. Im traveling right now.

I think I understand your question, and yes, the reinforce order works as a defensive mechanic best (meaning you can't extend past the unit your friendly unit controls).
Hope that makes sense.

Jeff
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  #8  
Old 07-29-2019
Froggy Froggy is offline
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An
Historical Sketch
of
The Conceptions of Memory among the Ancients.



Submitted as a Thesis

by

William A. Burnham,

Candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

at

Johns Hopkins University,

Baltimore.

1888.


Table of Contents.

I.

Conceptions of Memory before Aristotle, pp. 1–11


II.

Aristotle’s Conceptions of Memory, pp. 12–40


III.

Conceptions of Memory among the Stoics and Epicureans, and in Cicero and Quintilian, pp. 41–46


IV.

Conceptions of Plotinus and St. Augustine, pp. 47–70


V.

Diseases of Memory mentioned by ancient writers, pp. 71–73


VI.

Ancient Systems of Mnemonics, pp. 74–76




Memory.

1
I.

Mnemosyne, Hesiod tells us, was the mother of the Muses. Without speculating as some have done about the reasons for this myth it is interesting as showing an appreciation of the fundamental nature of memory and some sort of crude introspective psychology dating back possibly to pre-historic times.

Before the art of writing was in common use men had to depend more largely than to-day upon their memories for preserving and transmitting their knowledge. It is not surprising, therefore, that the 2ancients put a high estimate upon memory before they began to theorize about its nature. There are, of course, allusions to memory in Homer and in the Hebrew Scriptures.[1] And occasionally one of the early Greek philosophers tries to explain some phenomenon of memory. But we find no scientific study of the subject before Aristotle.

The psychology of the Ionian school of philosophers, as far as they can be said to have had any at all, was sensationalism. Their views of memory must be conjectured from the fundamental principles of their philosophy.

3The doctrine of transmigration as held in the Pythagoreans is an anticipation of Plato’s doctrine of reminiscence, but there is little psychology in it. Theophrastus tells us that Diogenes of Appollonia was puzzled by the phenomenon of forgetting things.[2] But he explained it in accordance with the principles of his philosophy by supposing that the cause of forgetting was an arrest of the equal distribution of air throughout the body. A corroboration of this explanation he found in the easier breathing that follows the recalling of what was forgotten.

Among the Eleatics, Parmenides is reported to have held that not 4only thought, but recollecting and forgetting depended upon the way the light or heat and the dark or cold are mixed in the body. If we may trust Theophrastus,[3] it may be assumed that, according to Parmenides, every presentation corresponded to a definite mixture or relation of these qualities, and with the destruction of that relation the presentation disappeared, that is, was forgotten.

Heraclitus, one might suppose, would study memory carefully, but in the fragments of his philosophy that have come down to us nothing is said upon the subject.
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Old 07-29-2019
Froggy Froggy is offline
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In Plato we find a more 5modern psychology. According to him the thinking power of the mind, the understanding, is above the mere power of sense perceptions. It is this power which compares and considers, notes similarities and contrasts, unity and plurality, and forms ideas of relation between Being and Non-Being as well as relations of number and proportions. Among the elements of this power, recollections (αναμνησις) is of prime importance. This rests upon the association by similarity and simultaneity.[4]

Plato distinguishes the passive retention (μνημη) of perceptions from active memory (αναμνησις),[5] and 6suggests as a definition of memory, “the power which the soul has of recovering, when by itself, some feeling which it experienced when in company with the body.” He attempts no explanation of memory; but in the Theaetetus puts the following words into the mouth of Socrates:

“I would have you imagine, then, that there exists in the mind of man a block of wax, which is of different sizes in different men; harder, moister, and having more or less of purity in one than in another, and in some of an intermediate quality.... Let us say that this tablet is a gift of memory, the mother of the muses, and that when we wish to remember 7anything which we have seen or heard, or thought in our own minds, we hold the wax to the perceptions and thoughts, and in that receive the impressions from them as from the seal of a ring; and that we remember and know what is imprinted as long as the image lasts; but when the image is effaced, or cannot be taken, then we forget and do not know.”

Plato carries out the same figure to explain different degrees of memory. “When the wax in one’s soul is deep, abundant, smooth, and of the right quality, the impressions are lasting. Such minds can easily retain and are not liable to confusion. But, on the other hand, when the wax is very soft, one learns 8easily and forgets as easily; if the wax is hard, the reverse is true; again, if the wax is hard or impure, the impressions are indistinct; and still more indistinct are they when jostled together in a little soul.”[6]

This illustration must not be taken too seriously; for later on in the same dialogue Socrates calls it a “waxen figment” and substitutes for it the figure of the aviary of all kinds of birds—“some flocking together apart from the rest, others in small groups, others solitary, flying anywhere and everywhere.”

The receptacle is empty when we are young. The birds are kinds of knowledge. Learning is the process 9of capturing the birds and of detaining them in this enclosure. In acts of memory we re-catch them and take them out of the aviary.

Plato’s views upon memory have a special interest on account of their connection with his metaphysical doctrines. Perception and recollection are the occasion of the minds turning away from the world of sense to the inner world of innate and universal ideas. These ideas we could never get from sense-perception. That gives us only the immediate and the individual. The ideas are of the essential and the universal. We could not conceive them if we did not already know them. Hence the power to know the universal in the individual proves a previous 10existence in which we had the intuitions of universal truths; and, accordingly, learning is but recollection.[7] The metaphysical aspects of memory, however, let us avoid as much as possible. They would soon lead far from a psychological study. But this doctrine of recollection lies at the heart of the Platonic philosophy, and it is necessary to note carefully the distinctions between this and ordinary memory. The latter, as defined by Plato in the passage quoted above is the memory or recollection of what has been learned through the body, that is, 11through sense-perception, belongs to the world of appearances, and is liable to many errors. The former, on the other hand, is not concerned with things of sense. It is recollection of that higher world where we had an antenatal vision of intelligible realities. Its highest manifestation is the insight of the philosopher who sees the divine goodness, truth, and beauty.[8]
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  #10  
Old 07-29-2019
Froggy Froggy is offline
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SKETCHES
OF
CENTRAL ASIA.

ADDITIONAL CHAPTERS

ON

MY TRAVELS, ADVENTURES,

AND ON THE

ETHNOLOGY OF CENTRAL ASIA.

BY

ARMINIUS VÁMBÉRY,

PROFESSOR OF ORIENTAL LANGUAGES IN THE
UNIVERSITY OF PESTH

PHILADELPHIA:
J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO.
Wm. H. ALLEN & CO., 13, WATERLOO PLACE,
PALL MALL, LONDON.

1868.

[All rights reserved.]


Lewis and Son, Printers, Swan Buildings, Moorgate Street.


PREFACE.

In the reviews of my "Travels in "Central Asia," which have issued from the European and American press, I have generally been reproached with scantiness of details and scrappiness of treatment;—in a word, with having said much less than I could have said about my journey from the Bosphorus to Samarkand,—so rich in varied adventures and experiences.

Now, I will not deny that such a charge has not been quite unfairly levelled against me.

While I was writing my memoirs, during the first three months of my stay in London, after my year-long wanderings in Asia, I had very great trouble in accustoming myself to the idea of being firmly settled down. I always kept fancying myself bound on the morrow to pack up and extend my travels with the caravan: hence my irresolution and hasty procedure. Moreover, I was quite a stranger in the domain of travelling, and deemed it my duty now to keep something[vi] back for mere decency; anon to leave out something else, as of inferior interest. Hence many an episode was left untouched, many a picture remained but a feeble sketch.

To make up for this defect—if sparingness in words be really a defect—I have written the following pages. They contain only supplementary papers, partly about my own adventures, partly on the manners and rare characteristics of the Central Asiatic peoples, linked together in no particular connection. It would naturally have been better to offer these pages in the place of the former volume; and yet the slightest notice of a country so little known to us as Turkestan, which political questions will soon bring into the front of passing questions, will always have its uses; and "meglio tardi che mai."

A. V.

Pesth,
2nd December, 1867.
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