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Old 04-28-2015
augastas augastas is offline
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Exclamation Horse Artillery

I wish that Horse Artillery in the game is more agile then regular artillery. If regular artillery moves 6, and cavalry 10. Then Horse artillery should move 8 per turn. I think Gen. Stuart has one unite like this.

Check this link on the subject:
http://www.napoleon-series.org/milit...orsearty1.html
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Old 04-28-2015
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caledonia caledonia is offline
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Default pelham

for a practical study of the forementioned tactics review the southern horse artillery as used on the right wing of the confederate line at fredericksburg (first battle)... this was a purrely offensive maneuver, from a defensive position, used to break up the federal columns advancing across the bottom lands of the rappahanock (sp.?)
I believe the young officer executing the maneuver was named pelham.
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Old 09-16-2016
JoeH7777 JoeH7777 is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by caledonia View Post
for a practical study of the forementioned tactics review the southern horse artillery as used on the right wing of the confederate line at fredericksburg (first battle)... this was a purrely offensive maneuver, from a defensive position, used to break up the federal columns advancing across the bottom lands of the rappahanock (sp.?)
I believe the young officer executing the maneuver was named pelham.
I believe your right about Pelham. If I remember right, it flanked the Union left as Burnside sent his forces across.
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Old 09-16-2016
Theodoric Theodoric is offline
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meade had himself met with success in breaking the rebal right, but he was not reinforced at first fb, in the pukerbrush swamp
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Old 09-16-2016
Theodoric Theodoric is offline
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Report of Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, U.S. Army,
Commanding Third Division.
Battle of Fredericksburg, Va.
December 11-15, 1862


HEADQUARTERS THIRD DIVISION,
FIRST ARMY CORPS,
December 20, 1862.


Capt. C. KINGSBURY; Jr.,
Assistant Adjutant-General,
Hdqrs. First Army Corps.

CAPTAIN: I have the honor to submit the subjoined report of the part taken by this division in the recent operations in the vicinity of Fredericksburg:
The division is composed of three brigades, organized and commanded as follows: First Brigade, Col. William Sinclair, Sixth Regiment Pennsylvania Reserve Corps, commanding, consists of the First Rifles (Bucktails), First, Second, and Sixth Regiments Pennsylvania Reserve Corps, and the One hundred and twenty-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers; the Second Brigade, commanded by Col. A. L. Magilton, Fourth Regiment Pennsylvania Reserve Corps, contains the Third, Fourth, Seventh, and Eighth Regiments Pennsylvania Reserve Corps, together with the One hundred and forty-second Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers; the Third Brigade, commanded by Brig. Gen. C. Feger Jackson, was composed of the Fifth, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, and Twelfth Regiments Pennsylvania Reserve Corps. Attached to this division were four batteries, each of four guns, two of light 12-pounders, one commanded by Capt. D. R. Ransom, Fifth U.S. Artillery, the other by Lieut. J. G. Simpson, First Pennsylvania Artillery, and two of 3-inch rifled guns, commanded by Capts. J. H. Cooper and F. P. Amsden, First Pennsylvania Artillery.
On the 11th instant, the division moved from the camp near White Oak Church to the vicinity of the point on the Rappahannock River selected for the crossing of the left grand division. The previous evening Captain Amsden's battery of rifled guns had been detached and ordered to report to Captain De Russy, U.S. Army, for service on the river bank. Brigadier-General Jackson's brigade, together with Ransom's and Simpson's batteries, were also detached and sent down during the night of the 10th, and posted on the river bank to protect the working party, which duty was successfully accomplished without any loss, although there was considerable firing between our sharpshooters and those of the enemy posted on the opposite bank.
The bridges being completed, the division crossed the river on the morning of the 12th, and was posted on the plateau on the left of the line of battle formed by the left grand division. The following was the formation of the division: The First Brigade in line of battle, its left resting on the river bank, and the line extending in a northwesterly direction, along and in rear of the ravine at Smithfield, the right connecting with the left of Gibbon's division. Two regiments of this brigade, the First Rifles and Second Infantry, were detached, the former for picket duty, the latter to occupy the buildings and outhouses at Smithfield, and to hold the bridge across the ravine at its debouch into the river. The batteries were posted in front of the First Brigade, on the edge of the ravine, where they had complete command of the front and of the approach by the Bowling Green road. The Second Brigade was formed in line of battle 300 paces in rear of the first and parallel to it, and the Third Brigade along the river bank in column of regiments, the head of the column being 100 paces in rear of the left of the Second Brigade. This position was occupied by 3 p.m. without any serious opposition from the enemy, but with occasional skirmishes with the pickets in front.
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Old 09-16-2016
Theodoric Theodoric is offline
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Early on the morning of the 13th, I accompanied the general commanding the First Corps to the headquarters of the left grand division, where the commanding general indicated the point he was instructed to attack, and I was informed my division had been selected to make the attack.
The point indicated was on the ridge, or rather range of heights, extending from the Rappahannock, in the rear of Fredericksburg, to the Massaponax, and was situated near the left of this ridge, where it terminated in the Massaponax Valley. Between the heights to be attacked and the plateau on which the left grand division was posted, there was a depression or hollow of several hundred yards in width, through which, and close to the foot of the heights, the Richmond railroad ran. The heights along the crest were wooded. The slope to the railroad from the extreme left for the space of 300 or 400 yards was clear; beyond this it was wooded, the woods extending across the hollow and in front of the railroad. The plateau on our side was level and cultivated ground up to the crest of the hollow, where there was quite a fall to the railroad. The enemy occupied the wooded heights, the line of railroad, and the wood in front. Owing to the wood, nothing could be seen of them, while all our movements on the cleared ground were exposed to their view. Immediately on receiving orders, the division was moved forward across the Smithfield ravine, advancing down the river some 700 or 800 yards, when it turned sharp to the right and crossed the Bowling Green road, which here runs in a parallel direction with the railroad. Some time was consumed in removing the hedge fences on this road, and bridging the drains on each side for the passage of the artillery.
Between 9 and 10 o'clock the column of attack was formed as follows: The First Brigade in line of battle on the crest of the hollow, and facing the railroad, with the Sixth Regiment deployed as skirmishers; the Second Brigade in rear of the First 300 paces; the Third Brigade by the flank, its right flank being a few rods to the rear of the First Brigade, having the Ninth Regiment deployed on its flank as skirmishers and flankers, and the batteries between the First and Second Brigades. This disposition had scarcely been made when the enemy opened a brisk fire from a battery posted on the Bowling Green road, the shot from which took the command from the left and rear.
Apprehending an attack from this quarter, the Third Brigade was faced to the left, thus forming, with the First, two sides of a square. Simpson's battery was advanced to the front and left of the Third Brigade, and Cooper's and Ransom's batteries moved to a knoll on the left of the First Brigade. These batteries immediately opened on the enemy's battery, and, in conjunction with some of General Doubleday's batteries in our rear, on the other side of the Bowling Green road, after twenty minutes' firing, silenced and compelled the withdrawal of the guns. During this artillery duel the enemy advanced a body of sharpshooters along the Bowling Green road, and under cover of the hedges and trees on the roadside.
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Old 08-10-2019
Theodoric Theodoric is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by caledonia View Post
for a practical study of the forementioned tactics review the southern horse artillery as used on the right wing of the confederate line at fredericksburg (first battle)... this was a purrely offensive maneuver, from a defensive position, used to break up the federal columns advancing across the bottom lands of the rappahanock (sp.?)
I believe the young officer executing the maneuver was named pelham.



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William Nelson Pendleton

First Rockbridge Artillery

Contributed by Matt Atkinson

The First Rockbridge Artillery was organized on April 29, 1861, in Lexington, Virginia, and served throughout the duration of the American Civil War (18611865), firing its first shot in anger at the First Battle of Manassas on July 21, 1861, and fighting in most major battles of the Army of Northern Virginia until its surrender at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. Initially led by Lexington rector and West Point graduate William N. Pendleton, the battery quickly became renowned for its daring and firmness under fire as part of the Stonewall Brigade. Pendleton, with ecclesiastical panache, named the first four tubes of the battery "Matthew," "Mark," "Luke," and "John." MORE...











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Title: General John A. McCausland

General John A. McCausland

The unit's seventy members elected Pendleton to train the battery after its first captain, John A. McCausland, a mathematics professor at the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington, was sent to train troops gathering in Charles Town, Virginia. The unit's initial armament consisted of two six-pounder cannon from VMI and two more cannon from Richmond. On May 11, the battery proceeded to Harpers Ferry to join the Virginia brigade of Confederate general Thomas J. Jackson.

On July 18, Confederate forces, including Jackson's brigade and the Rockbridge Artillery, started east to unite with Confederate general P. G. T. Beauregard's forces at Manassas Junction. On July 21, at the First Battle of Manassas, the battery helped defend the critical position at Henry House Hill. The brigade's stand would earn it, and its commander, the sobriquet "Stonewall." During the Union retreat, the battery even received a visit from Confederate president Jefferson Davis, who had traveled to Manassas to witness the fight personally. After the victory, the Rockbridge Artillery acquired a new complement of cannon that the Confederates had captured from the Union troops.

Later in July, Pendleton received a promotion to chief of artillery and Captain William McLaughlin assumed command of the battery. In November, the Rockbridge Artillery returned to the Shenandoah Valley to rejoin Jackson's command. During the winter of 1861 and 1862, the battery participated in Jackson's ill-fated Romney Campaign. At the Battle of Kernstown on March 23, 1862, it assisted in holding Union forces in check during the Confederate retreat but lost a six-pounder cannon and caisson in the process. In April, Captain William T. Poague assumed command of the battery. On June 9, 1862, at the Battle of Port Republic, Poague and the Rockbridge Artillery helped prevent the capture of Jackson as he fled U.S. soldiers pouring into the town. The unit deployed its guns, drove the Union troops out, and then later assisted in their pursuit.

Later that month, Jackson and the rest of his command joined the Army of Northern Virginia outside Richmond but did not participate in any of the Seven Days' Battles except for Malvern Hill. There, Confederate batteries, including the Rockbridge Artillery, proceeded into the fight piecemeal, allowing the Union batteries to concentrate their fire against the isolated Confederate guns. The Rockbridge Artillery expended all of its ammunition during Malvern Hill, but because it had been emplaced well, it suffered fewer casualties than did other batteries engaged.

On August 29, 1862, at the Second Battle of Manassas, Union general John Pope hurled his troops against Jackson's line. The Rockbridge Artillery fought side by side with the infantry in repulsing the attacks. The next day the battery shifted to the right and assisted in repulsing renewed attacks against Jackson's front. On September 17, at the Battle of Antietam, the Rockbridge Artillery was positioned near the Dunkard Church where it endured such a severe counter-battery cross fire from Union artillery that some Confederate gunners dubbed the battle "artillery hell." Although the battery was not as badly damaged as other units were, the ferocity of the fire prompted Robert E. Lee Jr., a member of the battery, to recall that the unit had been "severely handled" while aiding Confederate general J. E. B. Stuart's artillery fire on the Union flank. Lee also recalled that after the battle, his visage begrimed with powder and sweat, his own father, General Robert E. Lee, failed to recognize him. He remembered that "when he found out who I was, he congratulated me on being well and unhurt. I then said: 'General, are you going to send us in again?' 'Yes, my son,' he replied, with a smile: 'You all must do what you can to help drive these people back.'" Defiantly, the Army of Northern Virginia would remain on the field for another day before prudently retreating.

Licking its wounds after the savagery of Antietam, the Army of Northern Virginia withdrew to Virginia. It faced the Army of the Potomac again at the Battle of Fredericksburg on December 13, 1862. The Rockbridge Artillery, split into two sections, deployed its long-range guns on the extreme right flank of the Confederate line to support the guns of Major John Pelham and its other pieces closer to the center of the Confederate right flank at Prospect Hill. The battery sustained losses of six killed, sixteen wounded, and thirty-seven horses killed during the battle.
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Old 08-10-2019
Theodoric Theodoric is offline
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1862 Battle of Fredericksburg




FOUR MILES SOUTH of Fredericksburg, at the end of the battlefield tour road, stands a cannon-studded knoll known as Prospect Hill. Today the hill is a quiet, peaceful place, but 139 years ago it was the scene of a fierce duel between artillerists of the Blue and the Gray.

John F. Reynolds, commanding the Union army's 1st Corps, had orders to take the hill, a task he delegated to Gen. George G. Meade's division of Pennsylvania Reserves. As Meade aligned his men for the attack, Maj. John Pelham of the Confederate army brought forward a lone cannon and began shelling Meade's left flank. Union artillery drove away the annoying Confederate, allowing Meade to proceed with his attack.

Pelham's was not the only Confederate cannon on the field, however. Meade knew that the wooded ridge ahead harbored dozens of additional guns. Before ordering his troops to attack the forbidding heights, Meade resolved to knock out with artillery any Confederate guns that might be lurking there.

The bombardment began at 11 a.m. Meade opened with four batteries totaling 18 guns. Union artillery across the Rappahannock River on Stafford Heights added their weight to the attack. For an hour, wrote one witness, "the air was resonant with the savage music of shells and solid shot."

The Union gunners fired at a slow, steady rate. Three months earlier, at the Battle of Antietam, artillery chief Henry J. Hunt had watched in disapproval as gun crews rapidly fired off their ammunition so as to be able to leave the battlefield. He was not going to let that happen again. At Fredericksburg, he ordered his gun crews to fire no more than one round every three minutes. Firing at a more rapid pace, he sternly lectured, would be viewed as evidence of cowardice.

At the height of the bombardment, Hunt had as many as 60 guns in action. The shelling was impressive in terms of the noise and smoke it generated; however it failed to draw out and destroy Confederate artillery on the ridge. Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson had approximately 50 guns on his portion of the line, but he had wisely ordered his men to withhold their fire until the Union army sent forward its infantry. Because Jackson's artillery did not reply to his bombardment, Wainwright could not tell where the Confederate guns were were, much less whether he had damaged any of them.

Jackson's gunners finally tipped their hand about noon. As Meade aligned his division for the attack, he pushed forward the 9th Pennsylvania Reserve Regiment as skirmishers. Capt. David G. McIntosh, commanding a Confederate artillery battery on Prospect Hill, watched breathlessly as the Union line approached.

"What an awful suspense these last moments are," he later recalled. "The gun is charged, lanyard in hand, the gunner at the trail, ammunition heaped in piles nearby, waiting for the order to fire. Minutes seem like hours. One holds his breath and then breathes hard. But at last the moment comes."

Eight hundred yards in front of the Confederate guns stood a lone tree. Southern artillerymen had precisely measured its distance and cut the time fuses on their exploding shells accordingly. When the Union line reached the tree, 14 guns let loose with a roar.

"From then on," McIntosh wrote, "it is load and fire, load and fire, as fast as sponge and rammer and lanyard can do their work, and as fast as muscle and skill and consuming zeal can direct and control"
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Old 08-10-2019
Theodoric Theodoric is offline
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By firing on the Union line, the Confederates had exposed the position of their guns to Union view. Wainwright once again ordered his cannon forward to shell the heights. There was now no reason for the Confederates to hold back, and for an hour both sides went at it hammer and tongs. The Union army had superior artillery and ammunition, and the Confederates took a beating. The 14 guns at Prospect Hill were especially hard hit.




In the ranks that day was a young South Carolina soldier named Ben. As he stood by his gun, iron fragments struck all around him. "The trees around our guns were literally torn to pieces and the ground plowed up," he informed his parents. "I have been several times covered with dirt, and had it knocked in my eyes and mouth."

Three men in Ben's battery were killed in the maelstrom; 16 others were wounded. Ben himself survived by only the narrowest of margins:

"A piece of shell went through my coat sleeve; it stung a little. A Minié ball went through the ramrod, and it or a splinter struck me on the head. I was by the gun looking at the Yankees when a great piece of shell, big as my two fists, came along and knocked a spoke out of the wheel, and it or a piece of the spoke, or something else, hit me square in the breastI saw a piece of shell go a-'kiting' by my leg, missing it an inch or two. This is only a few of the narrow escapes I made today."

"It was," he noted, "a time to test a man's courage."
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Old 08-10-2019
Theodoric Theodoric is offline
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Few passed the test. One by one, Confederate artillerists began abandoning their guns and fleeing toward the back of the hill, where they hoped to find cover. It was little safer there. Many Union projectiles skimmed over the crest and exploded beyond, killing men and battery horses alike. So many animals were victims of the shelling that for years afterward the place was known as "Dead Horse Hill."

One man who did not seek safety was Capt. Willie Pegram. With his thin, pale face, wavy hair, and thick spectacles, the earnest 21-year-old officer looked more like a graduate student than a warrior, but in his breast beat the heart of a lion. Pegram commanded six of Prospect Hill's 14 guns.

As his men fled their pieces, Pegram shouted at them to return. When they did not respond, Pegram wrapped himself in his battery flag and strode calmly among

Capt. James Hall matched Pegram's coolness under fire. Hall commanded one of the Union batteries that was firing at Prospect Hill. He was chatting with some fellow officers when a solid shot skipped past him and struck an ammunition chest nearby. A deafening explosion followed.

Hall calmly walked over to the nearest cannon, sighted it, and sent a shell screeching toward the enemy lines. His shot was right on the mark, detonating a Confederate ammunition chest. Having exacted his revenge, Hall returned to his conversation.

Shots like Hall's had their effect. One by one, the Confederate guns fell silent. After an hour, Meade determined that the time had come to strike. The 3,800 men of his division rose to their feet and started toward the smoking ridge. As they passed through the line of barking Union guns, a sooty artillerist shouted after them: "Boys, we have done our duty, now go and do yours."

Next week: Mannsfield

DONALD C. PFANZ is staff historian with Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park. He is author of "Abraham Lincoln at City Point" and "Richard S. Ewell: A Soldier's Life."

Last edited by Theodoric; 08-19-2019 at 03:33 AM.
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