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  #21  
Old 05-31-2018
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Reviewing the Control Lists

In the light of this basic policy, and its new direction, the Government agencies responsible for economic defense were engaged in certain projects during the period covered by this report.

One of the most important of these projects was the review of the control lists. This review was a complex and time-consuming operation, which continued into 1954.

It is easy for the public to become confused about control lists, not only because of their necessarily secret nature, but also because there are so many lists, serving different purposes.

The United States has had three main lists for its own exports:

The munitions list, compiled and administered by the Department of State; the atomic energy list, compiled and administered by the Atomic Energy Commission; and a much longer list, covering all other controlled items, which is compiled and administered by the Department of Commerce.

In addition there are the Battle Act lists. They relate to potential exports from other countries to the Soviet bloc. They include those primary strategic items which we believe the other free-world countries should embargo in the interest of mutual security.

Then there are lists consisting of those items—at varying levels of control—which the cooperating free-world nations have accepted as a part of their informal coordination of controls.

All of these lists are subject to a continual process of review. But as a part of the new direction in United States policy, this continuing review process was broadened into an intensive reappraisal. Specialists from several Government agencies were reevaluating all our listings in terms of sharper and more meaningful criteria, and in[Pg 48] the light of all the new relevant technical and intelligence information that could be assembled.

This review would furnish the basis for appropriate adjustments and for United States discussions with other governments in 1954 concerning the coverage of export controls.
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  #22  
Old 05-31-2018
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East-West Trade: Road to Peace

It is a part of the economic defense policy of the United States never to lose sight of the vital need to keep open all paths that might lead to a sounder basis for peace in the world.

We not only recognize the economic benefits that free-world nations can get from an expanding East-West trade in peaceful goods; we also bear in mind the possibility that trade contacts can help to improve relations among peoples.

But in hoping for and working toward that end, we are not thereby accepting the belief that international trade inevitably and automatically leads toward peace. Hitler’s Germany expanded its foreign trade right up to the outbreak of World War II. We must view with skepticism the Communist propaganda line on trade and peace, for we know what their trading objectives and methods are. East-West trade as now constituted is carried on not with private individuals in the Soviet bloc but with agencies of Soviet-bloc governments.

International trade in general can be a broad highway toward better living standards and more peaceful relations. It has served humanity well. There should be more of it. But it takes two to trade, and trade is not necessarily a road to peace unless both parties wish to make it so.

Trade Within the Free World

Toward the close of the 6-month period under review, the President’s Commission on Foreign Economic Policy (Randall Commission) was hard at work. There was a great amount of public discussion, continuing into 1954, concerning ways in which the United States and other free-world countries could eliminate or reduce the obstacles that hinder the international exchange of goods.

The Commission, issuing its report in January, had much to say on the reduction of trade obstacles.

The Commission also included a section on East-West trade, recommending that the United States not object to more trade in peaceful goods between Western Europe and the European bloc.

These two subjects, trade liberalization and East-West trade, are connected with each other. When businessmen in free-world countries are hindered—either by trade barriers or other artificial causes—from[Pg 49] selling products in other free-world countries, they are more prone to seek markets in the Soviet bloc.

To a certain extent this aggravates the problem of maintaining adequate strategic trade controls and the problem that some free-world countries have of avoiding undue dependence on the Soviet bloc.

It would be impractical to seek the elimination of all trade restrictions within the free world but it is important to reduce unjustifiable barriers and it is also important to take whatever other steps are possible to develop new markets and new sources of supply.

To bring alternative markets and supplies into being is not an overnight task but it must be done. It means the reduction of many restrictions in the United States, thus allowing more goods to come in from our friends and allies. It means a similar loosening of restrictions by other free nations. It means more and better economic integration among the European countries. It means steady advancement in the economic development of the underdeveloped areas of the world.

All those things are important for many reasons. East-West trade is one aspect of the matter. The United States Government recognizes that hindrances to the exchange of goods within the free world do have a definite relationship to the international system of strategic trade controls.
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  #23  
Old 05-31-2018
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The China Trade Falls Off

This report so far has concerned itself almost entirely with trade between the free world and the Soviet bloc in Europe. Now it is time to shift our attention to the China trade.

During the 6 months under review, free-world trade with Communist China fell far below the first half of the year. Free-world exports to Communist China from July through December are estimated to have been $111.1 million, as compared with $158.9 million in the first half of 1953. This meant that shipments in the report-period fell below even the extremely low level of the first half of 1952.

The result of this decline in shipments to Communist China was that the estimated total for all of 1953 was $270 million, only a slight rise in value from the 1952 exports of $256.5 million 1. A larger rise had been foreseen. The last Battle Act report to Congress, World-Wide Enforcement of Strategic Trade Controls, pointed out: “If free-world exports continued at the same rate as that of the first 3 or 4[Pg 50] months of the year—and that is not at all certain—the 1953 total would be around $375 million.” It actually seems to have been about $100 million short of that.

Free-world imports from Communist China also dropped in the second half of 1953, though not so sharply as exports. They amounted to $198.4 million in the second half, according to a preliminary estimate, compared with $226.6 million in the first half of the year. This brought the estimated annual total of imports to $425 million in 1953, as compared with $365.8 million in 1952.

It was true that in spite of the decline in the latter part of the year, some countries were able to sell more goods to the Chinese Communists in 1953 than they had in 1952. For example, exports of Western Germany rose from $2.8 million in 1952 to $25 million in 1953, in line with the general rebirth of German foreign trade. Exports of France rose from $3.3 million to $12.4 million, and Japan from half a million dollars to $4.5 million. Exports from the United Kingdom rose from $12.8 million to $17.5 million. On the other hand exports from the British Colony of Hong Kong, the traditional gateway of commerce to and from the mainland of China, fell so drastically in the second half of 1953 that the Hong Kong total for all of 1953 was only $94.6 million, or little more than the $91 million of the previous year. And the Communists slashed their buying of Pakistan cotton, which had come to about $84 million in 1952, down to about $7 million in 1953.


1 These 1952 and 1953 figures are adjusted to exclude Swiss watches, which appear in Swiss official statistics as exports to China, but which actually went to the British Crown Colony of Hong Kong and were reexported to other free-world countries. Switzerland, in reporting its “China” trade, lumps together its trade with Communist China, Nationalist China, and Hong Kong. The watches in question are believed to amount to approximately $1 million a month, on the average.
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  #24  
Old 3 Weeks Ago
Froggy Froggy is online now
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well here come the refugees over the Mexican border. and guess what I saw on CNN. They showed me the most wonderfull camps in which they will be detained. nice cozy huts and comfortable beds, plenty of food and water, it is the same likeness as homeless shelters, that our own us citizens use when they need a place to say, exactly the same, SO QUIT YOUR COMPLAINNING YOU DEMOCRATS, WE ARE TREATING THESE WOULD BE IMMIGRANTS EXACTLY THE SAME AS U.S. CITIZENS. I SAW IT MYSELF ON CNN. ITS THE SAME PROCEDURE THAT HAS BEEN GOING ON ACROSSS THIS COUNTRY. AND THE DWELLINGS THE BEDS THE FOOD ITS ALL THE SAME . I KNOW I HAVE BEEN THERE. SO QUIT YOUR COMPLAINNING YOU DEMOCRATS. WE HERE IN AMERICA TRAET OUR HOMELESS THE SAMEWAY, WE HELP........GOOD DAY..
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  #25  
Old 3 Weeks Ago
Froggy Froggy is online now
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YES the refugees are well taken care of with accomodations which are exactly the same for the unfortunate u.s. citezens who sometimes find themselves homeless too. So quit your complaining YOU DEMOCRATS>
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  #26  
Old 3 Weeks Ago
Theodoric Theodoric is offline
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yes sir you tell em froggy, and you know what else. they get all the smokes they want, satalite tv and a chance to correspond with their loved ones. they get to go out and have a football game if they want or criket or whatever they play. and to worship anyway they want. but we cant just let them in the wrong way we need them to stay there until we can deport them. there is no place to put them
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